Sunday, May 24, 2020

Science Versus Pseudoscience Science Vs. Pseudoscience

BSC 1020 – Homework Unit A Science vs. Pseudoscience This homework is worth 25 points of the 900 points available in the course. Please use the textbook, the PPT lecture handout of Chapter 1, and internet to answer the following six questions: 1) What are the steps of the scientific method? (4 points) The scientific method contains several steps which are as follows. 1. Ask a question 2. Do some background research 3. Create a hypothesis 4. Test your hypothesis by experimentation 5. Analyze the data and come to a conclusion 6. Communicate your results 2) Explain the difference between science and pseudoscience. (4 points) Science and Pseudoscience differ in many ways. Science uses experimentation to accept or reject the hypothesis being tested while pseudoscience only looks for evidence to support the hypothesis often ignoring conflicting evidence. In science reproducible results are required before coming to a conclusion while in pseudoscience will often fail to successfully reproduce similar results. Science also argues with scientific information based of experimentation while pseudoscience lacks scientific evidence when supporting ideas. All and all the two contrast in many ways these being some of the most prominent. 3) List three examples of pseudoscience (other than astrology). Explain in 1-2 sentences why you consider them so. (3 points) 1. Hollow Earth: This suggests the earth is entirely hollow or partially hollow and a certain subterraneanShow MoreRelatedA study on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder3753 Words   |  15 Pagescognitive restructuring, or combinations of these have found robust effects for therapy compared to placebo (often relaxation training alone) or to wait-list control groups (Resick, Monson, Rizvi, 2008). The results for combinations of treatments versus a single intervention are mixed (Resick et al., 2008); however, many clinicians prefer to use some type of exposure therapy with other CBT or cognitive processing techniques added, but exposure therapies should only be attempted by therapists trainedRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder: Effects and Treatments4411 Words   |  18 Pagescognitive restructuring, or combinations of these have found robust effects for the rapy compared to placebo (often relaxation training alone) or to wait-list control groups (Resick, Monson, Rizvi, 2008). The results for combinations of treatments versus a single intervention are mixed (Resick et al., 2008); however, many clinicians prefer to use some type of exposure therapy with other CBT or cognitive processing techniques added, but exposure therapies should only be attempted by therapists trainedRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words   |  760 Pages.............................................................................. 299 CHAPTER 10 Deductive Reasoning .......................................................................................... 312 x Implying with Certainty vs. with Probability ................................................................................ 312 Distinguishing Deduction from Induction ..................................................................................... 319 Review of MajorRead MoreHistory of Management Thought Revision17812 Words   |  72 PagesW. Taylor and trace developments in management thought in Great Britain, Europe, Japan, and the U.S.A. up to about 1929. Taylor is the focal point, but we will see his followers as well as developments in personnel management and the behavioral sciences. Henri Fayol and Max Weber will be discussed, although their main influence came later, and we will conclude with an overview of the influence of scientific management in its environment. Chapter 7 The Advent of Scientific Management

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Managing core risks in banks - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 14 Words: 4178 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION RISK is a concept that denotes the precise probability of specific eventualities. It is simply the future uncertainty and not only the incidents of predictable outcomes but also the unpredictable favourable outcomes. All the firms or companies whether it is in real or providing service are facing some sort of RISK at present competitive business world to run its business. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Managing core risks in banks" essay for you Create order Banks are one of them in these regard and it is facing possibility of risk in terms of money and their achieved reputation. Bank is a financial institution that primarily deals with borrowing and lending money from the people by the people to the people. Besides this core activities now-a-days banks are also dealing with other roles related to economy. Modern banks are offering a wide range of financial services as a result the level and intensity of risk exposure have expanded today. 1.1 Significance: All the policymakers and the managers are now believe that risk management is essential where it has been identified few core areas to be managed effectively and efficiently are as follows, credit risk, interest-rate risk, exchange-rate risk, environmental risk,, and money laundering risk, liquidity or funding risk, leverage or capital risk, strategic risk, which needed to be greater emphasis. 1.2 Problem Statements: To do the whole research, at first, it is necessary to identify the problems regarding the selected topic. As the topic is related to risk in banks and its management it is the core need to know the problems that banks may face if the risks are not considered properly and those problems are as follows: ? Chances of variation in expected outcome. ? Possibility of suffering loss. ? Measure of probability and severity of adverse effects. 1.3 Research Objectives: The core objectives of doing this research are as follows: ? To improve profit and profitability. ? To manage and reduce all the major risks in banking business. ? To ensure long-term solvency and viability of the bank. ? To develop a structured framework for risk management. ? To form some guidelines as a basis for customization of the risk management strategies of banks. 1.4 Rationale: As a post graduate diploma student it is very essential to do some research to go depth of any topic. As banking sector is expanding its hand in different financial event everyday, as the demand for better services increases day by day it, they are coming with different ideas and product where the risk is also becoming higher. So it is necessary to know all the risks bank may face to run its business. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW The unanticipated part of the return, that portion resulting from surprises is the true risk of any investment. If we always receive what we expect, than the investment is perfectly predictable and, by definition, risk-free. In other words, the risk of owning an asset comes from surprises-unanticipated events. RISK is a concept that denotes the precise probability of specific eventualities. It is simply the future uncertainty and not only the incidents of predictable outcomes but also the unpredictable favourable outcomes. All the firms or companies whether it is in real or providing service are facing some sort of risk at present competitive business world to run its business. Banks are one of them in these regard and it is facing possibility of risk in terms of money and their achieved reputation. Bank is a financial institution that primarily deals with borrowing and lending money from the people by the people to the people. Besides this core activities now-a-days banks are also dealing with other roles related to economy. A wide range of financial services are offering by modern banks as a result the level and intensity of risk exposure have been expanded as well. So all the policymakers and the managers are now believe that risk management is essential, where they have been identified few core areas to be managed effectively and efficiently are as follows, credit risk, interest-rate risk, exchange-rate risk, environmental risk, money laundering risk, liquidity or funding risk, leverage or capital risk, strategic risk, which needed to discuss broadly. Financial risk refers to the risk that a bank will not have ample cash flow to meet the financial obligations. Financial risks are taken in managing the balance sheet and off-balance activities. Financial risk covers, among others, credit risk which is thought the most dominant financial risk today. This is the risk of erosion of value due to simple default or non-payment by the borrowers. Credit risk is also known as counter-party risk since its come from the failure of counter party to meet its obligation as per contract or agreed terms and conditions. An interest-rate risk refers to the potential negative effect on the net cash flows and value of assets and liabilities resulting from interest-rate changes. In extreme conditions, interest rate fluctuations can create a liquidity crisis. The subject of interest rate risk also belongs to the Asset-Liability Management and is much broader than liquidity. The fluctuation in the prices of financial assets due to changes in interest rates can be large enough to make default risk which is the major threat to banks viability. Exchange-rate risk, or currency risk, is the risk of declines in cash flows and asset values of a bank due to change in exchange rate. The banks with overseas operations of those active in foreign exchange markets faces exchange rate risk. All the risk and how it can be reduced would be discussed thoroughly on the ma in body of the report. All the risk that modern banks may face at the present competitive business world viewed by experts have briefly discussed as follows: 2.1 Credit Risk Management: Saidur, (2008) defined that financial risk arises as a risk when a bank doesnt have enough money to meet its financial obligations, are taken in managing the balance sheet and off-balance activities. This risk includes, among others, credit risk which is the most dominant financial risk today that decomposition of value due to simple default or non-payment by the borrowers. Credit risk is also known as counter-party risk since its come from the failure of counter party to meet his/her obligation as per contract or agreed terms and conditions that also can be defined as the possible failure by the bank borrowers or counter-party within the agreed time period. According to BIS (2000), â€Å"Credit Risk is most simply defined as the potential that a bank borrower or counterparty will fail to meet its obligations in accordance with agreed terms.† To maximize the rate of return this risk should be managed properly. Banks need to manage credit risk in the entire range as well a s the risk in individual credits or transactions. The effective management of credit risk is a critical component of a comprehensive approach to risk management and essential to the long-term success of any banking organization. 2.2 Interest-rate Risk Management: According to Bank of Jamaica (2005), â€Å"Interest rate risk is the potential impact that faces by banks on its earnings and net asset values of changes in interest rates.† When banks principal amount and its cash flows differ in both on-and-off balance sheet items then interest-rate risk arises. Managing interest rate risk is a fundamental element in the safe and sound management of all banks. Although the facts of interest rate risk management differ among banks depend upon the nature and complexity of its asset and liability structure. A wide-ranging interest rate risk management programme requires getting interest-rate risk positions and risking profiles. ? To establish and implement sound and prudent interest rate risk policies; ? To develop and implement appropriate interest rate risk measurement techniques; and ? To develop and implement effective interest rate risk management and control procedures. Managing interest rate requires a clear understanding of th e sum at risk and the impact of changes in interest rates on this risk position. To make these determinations, adequate information should be available to consent appropriate action to be taken within acceptable, often very short, short periods. The longer it takes an institution to eliminate or reverse an unwanted exposure, the greater the possibility of loss. Interest-rate risk refers to the potential negative effect on the net cash flows and value of assets and liabilities resulting from interest-rate changes. In extreme conditions, interest rate fluctuations can create a liquidity crisis. The subject of interest rate risk also belongs to the Asset-Liability Management and is much broader than liquidity. The fluctuation in the prices of financial assets due to changes in interest rates can be large enough to make default risk which is the major threat to banks viability. (Saidur 2008) 2.3 Exchange-rate risk Management: Saidur (2008) pointed out that exchange-rate risk or currency risk is the risk of declines in cash flows and asset values of a bank due to change in exchange rate. The banks with overseas operations of those active in foreign exchange markets faces exchange rate risk. The net long position and short position of foreign currency balances under trading book may be assessed to know the extent the risk as well as capital requirements for this purpose. However, the Value-at-Risk (VaR), one of the most sophisticated approaches that depend on inferential statistical parameters, may be used to determine the extent of risk in this area. 2.4 Environmental Risk Management: Saidur (2008) suggested that Environmental Risk is the risk that the bank must guard against but over which it has at best limited control. The bank must take it that as a firm, like any other, it is open to risk resulting from changes in the external environment in which it operates. It includes: a) Defalcation risk—the risk of theft or fraud by bank officers or employees as well as by the customers must be carefully guarded against in order to avoid substantial losses. Code of conduct, moral value creation, punitive measures etc., may help reducing such risk. 2.5 Money Laundering Risk Management: Saidur (2008) explained that the loss of reputation and expenses incurred as penalty for being negligent in prevention of money laundering. Sound Know Your Client (KYC) procedure, Cash transaction report (CTR), suspicious transaction report (STR), clear understanding of the business of the client, persons identity will reduce the loss of reputation and expenses incurred as penalty from such types of risk. With money laundering on the rise around the world, regulatory response is also increasing. Recent enforcement actions have focused on an institutions lack of consistent internal controls, governance and oversight. In response, financial institutions are in search of reasonable anti-money laundering measures they can take to ensure regulatory compliance, including implementing a monitoring system that: ? Migrates all risks identified in their risk assessment. ? Can be implemented in months rather than years. ? Has lower infrastructure and support costs. ? Is proven to pass r egulatory muster. 2.6 Liquidity or Funding Risk Management: Mathias and Kleopatra (2009) describes that Funding liquidity risk is the possibility that over a specific horizon, a bank will unable to meet the demand for money, as other risks, funding liquidity risk is forward looking and measured over a specific horizon. It is a zero-one concept, i.e. a bank can either settle obligations, or it cannot. Funding liquidity risk, on the other hand, can take on infinitely many values reflecting the magnitude of risk. Moreover, funding liquidity is a point-in-time concept, while funding liquidity is forward looking. As long as the bank is not in an absorbing state, both liquidity and illiquidity are possible. The likelihood of either depends on the time horizon considered and on the nature of the funding position of the bank. In this respect, concerns about the future ability to settle obligations or to raise cash at short notice, i.e. future funding liquidity, will impact on current funding liquidity risk. 2.7 Leverage or Capital Risk Management: Leverage or capital risk is the potential inability of a bank to protect its depositors and creditors from declines in asset value and therefore, default. Banks need to maintain adequate capital because it is caution against unexpected losses; it ensures that a bank remains solvent and stays in business even under extreme conditions; it has directly linked with investment/credit operations and it aims at absorbing unexpected losses at certain confidence level. Banks are following the best international practice given by the Basel Committee on banking supervision for maintaining adequate capital to commensurate to exposure or risk on balance sheet from 1996. Saidur (2008). 2.8 Strategic Risk Management: Saidur (2008), depicts that strategic risk is the risk of the bank choosing inappropriate geographic and product areas that will be profitable for the bank in a complex future environment. In other words, strategic risk may occur when a bank is not prepared or able to complete in a newly developing line of business. 2.9 Overview: A widespread and classy management information system needs to be developed for analysing behavioural profile of depositors and borrowers. Also need to understand mature profile of assets and liabilities including duration gap analysis, calculation of potential loss from movements of rate of return, adoption of contingency plan for liquidity, analysing some crucial factors related to possibility of credit default, loss given default, exposure at default expected loss etc. CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Types: Quantitative and qualitative approaches are the beginning point to understand the collection of information for research. The observations and measurements that can be measured objectively and repeated by other researchers are known as the quantitative research. On the other hand the research which aims to increase our understanding of why is called qualitative research. The research that we have done is a qualitative research because its increase our understanding of ‘why? Suppose from this research we will be able to know that why banks should manage its core risk? 3.2 Methods of Data Collection: To complete a research we have to collect a lot of data and information. This data and information can be two types: primary data or secondary data. By the term primary data generally we mean the immediate information while secondary data relates with the past period information. Primary data is more accommodating as it shows latest information and we can collect primary data directly from the work field and it take a lot of time. But secondary data can be collect effortlessly, rapidly and inexpensively. We made this research on the basis of secondary data. Mainly we collect the information from different journals, books and through some websites. 3.3 Research Framework: Saidurs definition was more reasonable so the definition was taken which is financial risk arises as a risk when a bank doesnt have enough money to meet its financial obligations, are taken in managing the balance sheet and off-balance activities. According to Bank of Jamaica â€Å"Interest rate risk is the potential impact that faces by banks on its earnings and net asset values of changes in interest rates.† When banks principal amount and its cash flows differ in both on-and-off balance sheet items then interest-rate risk arises. Interest-rate risk refers to the potential negative effect on the net cash flows and value of assets and liabilities resulting from interest-rate changes. In extreme conditions, interest rate fluctuations can create a liquidity crisis. The subject of interest rate risk also belongs to the Asset-Liability Management and is much broader than liquidity. The fluctuation in the prices of financial assets due to changes in interest rates can be l arge enough to make default risk which is the major threat to banks viability, which was broadly discussed by Saidur. He also pointed out that exchange-rate risk or currency risk is the risk of declines in cash flows and asset values of a bank due to change in exchange rate. The banks with overseas operations of those active in foreign exchange markets faces exchange rate risk. The net long position and short position of foreign currency balances under trading Mathias and Kleopatra describes that Funding liquidity risk is the possibility that over a specific horizon, a bank will unable to meet the demand for money, as other risks, funding liquidity risk is forward looking and measured over a specific horizon. It is a zero-one concept, i.e. a bank can either settle obligations, or it cannot. Funding liquidity risk, on the other hand, can take on infinitely many values reflecting the magnitude of risk. Saidur (2008), depicts that strategic risk is the risk of the bank choosin g inappropriate geographic and product areas that will be profitable for the bank in a complex future environment. In other words, strategic risk may occur when a bank is not prepared or able to complete in a newly developing line of business. CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Banking has a diversified and complex financial activity which is no longer limited within the geographic boundary of a country. Since its activity involves high risk, the issue of effective internal control system, corporate governance, transparency, accountability has become significant issues to ensure smooth performance of the banking industry throughout the world. In many banks internal control is identified with internal audit; the scope of internal control is not limited to audit work. It is an integral part of the daily activity of a bank, which on its own merit identifies the risks associated with the process and adopts a measure to mitigate the same. Internal Audit on the other hand is a part of Internal Control system which reinforces the control system through regular review. Internal Control refers to the mechanism in place on a permanent basis to control the activities in an organization, both at a central and at a departmental/divisional level. A key component of ef fective internal control is the operation of a solid accounting and information system. The internal control environment is the framework under which internal controls are developed, implemented and monitored. It consists of the mechanisms and arrangements that ensure internal and external risks to which the company is exposed are identified; appropriate and effective internal controls are developed and implemented to soundly and prudently manage these risks; reliable and comprehensive systems are to be put in place to appropriately monitor the effectiveness of these controls. Each company needs to have in place an appropriate and effective internal control environment to ensure that the company is managed and controlled in a sound and prudent manner. 4.1 Credit risk: This risk results from the possible inability of the borrower to repay the loan or its benefits or the inability of the companys securities from the investor bank to pay the value of paper or revenues, and this danger is the quality of the portfolio of loans and investments in securities and the degree of risk in loan is often higher than securities. This risk can be controlled partly by examining the borrowers financial appropriacy and his ability pay as an initial guarantee for payment of the loan, and to obtain assets or securities or goods as secondary guarantees for payment of the loan, as well as examining the financial situation of companies issuing the securities which the bank wishes to invest in. However, we can not control another part of credit risk represented in non-payment due to general economic conditions or natural disasters. 4.2 Liquidity Risk: This risk results from the inability of the bank to repay liabilities and obligations due on their maturity dates because the bank does not harmonize the maturities dates of assets and liabilities through investment in assets with maturities dates greater than those of liabilities, something which leads to the inability to meet the demands for the withdrawal of deposits when they are due. Liquidity risk can be divided into two types: Funding Liquidity Risk (it results from the inability of the bank in normal circumstances to obtain adequate liquidity to repay its obligations, or obtain new deposits or a new loan or its inability to liquidate its assets); Market Liquidity Risk (it results from sudden withdrawal of deposits resulting in the inability of the bank to pay without incurring unexpected loss). 4.3 Market or Price Risk: This risk results from the decline in the value of some elements of logistical assets or liabilities, the Bank handles the assets and liabilities affected by the market price significantly, especially when interest rates differ between each of the assets and liabilities. General Market Risks (where all market tools move once as a result of taking economic decisions or general conditions and therefore this type of risk can not be controlled; Specific Market Risks (where a certain tool moves without the others for reasons related to the source of this tool, such as low profits or the returns of the portfolio or indicator of securities related to a certain industry that suffers from certain recession.. The banks management must predict and control such risks by diversifying investments. 4.4 Foreign Currency Risk: The reason for this type of risk is the change in exchange rates of foreign currencies against the local currency, which affects revenues and costs associated with investments in foreign currency. The probability of this risk increases with the increase in the volume of investments in foreign currency or their concentration in one currency. 4.5 Interest rate risk: A bank is exposed to interest rate risk when it experiences a situation of imbalance in terms of size or maturity dates between assets and liabilities sensitive to interest rates, leading to potential losses for the bank when interest rate increases or declines and this influences the net asset value in the budget, which some call risk gap. 4.6 Operational Risk: It results from the inability of the information and control system in the bank to predict various other risks, and as a result their occurrence is ignored and the bank incurs losses. This shortcoming may be due to technical reasons related to the information system itself or to administrative and regulatory reasons. 4.7 Legal Risk: This risk results from the decline of the market value of the assets of the bank compared with liabilities as a result of losses for any of the above reasons, and therefore the bank cannot pay dues to clients and resort to liquidation and the use of its capital to fill the gap between assets and liabilities. Thus, it can notice the multiplicity and diversity of the risks faced by commercial banks in their work due to the nature of the banking industry which is characterized by a range of factors that lead to increased risks. These factors include: Commercial banks dependency on others funds represented in deposits and loans so that the ratio of capital to net assets does not exceed 7% at most, which reduces the safety edge for small depositors and increases risks. The nature of the financial markets in which banks operate, as these markets are constantly changing, and the growing global inflation, which supports the state of instability of commercial banks. Increased co mpetition faced by commercial banks on the part of other financial institutions to attract and grant funds such as insurance companies, pension funds and securities investment companies. CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Banks can apply the follow strategies to manage the risk: 1. making intelligent investment/credit decisions so that the expected risk of investment /credit is both accurately graded and priced to compensate risk exposure; 2. diversifying across borrowers, activities and regions so that credit loses are not concentrated to a particular area, borrower or activity; 3. creating ‘investment caps to avoid over concentration on a particular sector; 4. imposing legal limit of investment/credit for each single client or group of companies 5. encouraging syndicated financing; 6. purchasing third party guarantees/credit insurance so that default risk entirely of partially can be shifted away from the banks; and 7. setting-up separate credit administration department to administer proper disbursement, documentation and custody thereof monitoring covenants and compliance. In the economic reality from our days, banks face several challenges to sustain the economic development of every country. There are a lot of threats and risks which c an interfere in the banks activity, with a great influence over the performance and profitability. Therefore, in this paper we analyzed some interesting and useful performance evaluation methods in commercial banks, concomitantly with a detailed analysis of the risks that a commercial bank faces in managing assets and liabilities. Stable banking systems are able to maintain efficiency in unforeseen situations and to generate incentives and credible financial information for all participants. The importance of this approach is that a market economy can not function without profitable consolidated banks; together with the revival of economy and improving the business environment. The banking system has seen an accelerated development, both in terms of quantity, as particularly in terms of quality. In the context of the challenges associated with globalization, internationalization banking activity, as a consequence of reduce trade barriers between countries and the opening of finan cial markets to foreign investors, can not be achieved without an efficient banking system. In the economic reality from our days, banks face several challenges to sustain the economic development of every country. There are a lot of threats and risks which can interfere in the banks activity, with a great influence over the performance and profitability. Therefore, in this paper we analyzed some interesting and useful performance evaluation methods in commercial banks, concomitantly with a detailed analysis of the risks that a commercial bank faces in managing assets and liabilities.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Behavior Modification Project Free Essays

I don’t remember exactly when I took to smoking or how the habit had developed in me. However I remember well that my pattern of smoking has been fairly consistent, at least for the last couple of years, smoking about six cigarettes a day. There are of course days when I have smoked a couple of cigarettes more or less too. We will write a custom essay sample on Behavior Modification Project or any similar topic only for you Order Now Most of my friends don’t smoke and they don’t like smoking in their presence, although they wouldn’t object it on the face. I am aware of the risks of smoking, its association with cancer and strokes, and had long decided to abandon it. I had convinced myself that I need to give up smoking. However I didn’t have a plan or deadline for it; not that I was ignorant of this fact. I knew that to get rid of any habit, one should have a concrete plan and an anticipated schedule. In my mind, I believed I would soon be implementing one for myself. Unfortunately I did nothing in an effort to quit smoking, only compensating it with a feeling that I have a strong untested will power and can easily quit whenever I wanted. It never struck me that the quitting should start now. It so happened, that I had an opportunity last month to attend a seminar on ‘Modern lifestyle trends and its impact on health’. Here the speaker emphasized that habits like smoking, alcoholism, drugs, sexual attitudes can only be reversed when it is within a reversible range. He said it was his personal opinion that chronic addicts cannot come out of it, no matter what the de-addiction programs he or she goes through. He then went on to give scary facts that awaited the pursuers of these habits. This was when I got really scared, and decided to call it a day. I knew I was not a chronic smoker although I thanked God; he didn’t define a chronic smoker. I realized and accepted the fact that I had not made even the slightest attempt, to give up smoking. I took a resolution that quitting efforts would start right here and right now. I was careful enough not to fall back on Behavior Modification Project 3 my will power and put it through an acid test, by deciding to quit immediately. I began to plan a way of achieving a no smoking state in a gradual way. I was happy that although my efforts to quit smoking had been late, it was being done cautiously. Had I taken an unplanned and arbitrary decision, like stopping instantly; and if it had rebounded, there were chances that I would probably never get out of it. For the first week, I had decided that I would smoke no more than six cigarettes a day, so as to average about six or lesser number per day. For the second week, I had planned a reduction of two cigarettes a day, so as to average about four or less per day. Then the most important third week, where I further reduced the number of cigarettes to just two per day. Then the hopefully successful fourth week, where I would be a non-smoker. Although I was confident, I was apprehensive of the possibility of achieving these goals. I recollected the times when I didn’t have a cigarette and desperately needed one, and to the extent I went, to get one. As my goal to quit smoking is to be achieved only in stages, I thought it necessary to reward myself whenever I reach the goal, for the week. This would not only be an encouragement for me, but also an acknowledgement of meeting target for that week. I decided to treat myself to a half hour, either in a flight simulator or with friends. This was my roadmap to quit smoking, planned in detail. The first week wasn’t difficult as it was almost like any before; the only difference being that it should not exceed six any day. However, I considered this week as a crucial one because this was the first week I was ever under smoking conditions. I smoked only about five for most days of this week. The second week was more difficult, as I could smoke only four or less. Here too I tried to restrict to the least possible and I smoked less than the target. I smoked only about three per day for most days, touching four only twice that week. I allowed and enjoyed the treat I promised myself, after each week. Then came the ultimate third week Behavior Modification Project 4 where I had to be more resistive to temptations; just two cigarettes a day. It was indeed difficult but I was determined, and knew it was worth it. On the third day of the third week, I had a feeling that things might become extremely difficult, and even impossible in the fourth week. Third week looked achievable, but I feared the fourth ultimate week, where I had to be without cigarettes. I realized, I needed any possible help to keep me off cigarettes. I joined a meditation class by the mid of the third week. By the time fourth week started, I felt I could comfortably keep off cigarettes for the week. I didn’t feel the urge to smoke one that entire week. In fact, I would say, the fourth week was the most comfortable and a confident one as I felt that smoking was no longer a problem with me. When I went for my treat that weekend, I sensed the feel of being a non-smoker, for the first time. How to cite Behavior Modification Project, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Contributions Masini To Accounting Theories-Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Contributions Masini To Accounting Theories? Answer: Introduction Amazon is a cloud computing company that is based in Seattle, United States and is the largest online retailer in the world. It incorporates the principle of general-purpose financial reporting while preparing their financial reports. Values of figures reported in the assets and liabilities and several other areas of financial statements that are based on the estimates and assumptions of principles. In the present situation, investors of Amazon are facing with dilemma as despite the bullish performance of organization. Investors are bullish on long-term performance and they are scared to trade in short-term aspects and such behaviours of investors are explained by the application of mental short cut concepts that is heuristics. The outperformance of share price of Amazon is driven by higher level of operating cash flow and increasing revenue. Moreover, Amazon does not have any particular accounting principle and they keep amending the accounting system for complying with the updated standard. There are several possible objectives for general purpose financial reporting. Explain what these objectives might be, and which one you think best applies to Amazons financial reporting (based on the information in the case study). Make sure that you fully explain your answer. A general-purpose financial statement is a means for communicating reliable and relevant information to users about a reporting entity. Reporting entities are enabled to discharge their accountability by providing mechanisms to their governing bodies and management. It helps in discharging the responsibilities of reporting entities by inflecting both at micro and at macro-economic level. Another objective of general purpose financial reporting is to serve the needs of stakeholders of reporting entities such as lenders, potential investors, creditors with relevant financial information that would assist them in decision making (Andrei and Corbella 2017). It provides platform for assessing prospects of entities for their future net cash flow and whether the governing bodies and management are effectively and efficiently managed. General purpose financial reporting is directed primarily catered to investors, lenders, creditors and their objective is to provide relevant financial information. Financial information about reporting entities such as any claim against them and any economic resources are provided through such reporting standards. Effect in the transaction and any effect of change in claims and economic resources of entities are provided. Useful input are provided through such information that assist investors in decision-making. From the given case study on Amazon, it was observed that although online retail giant experienced a jump in sales value, they do not have increasing gross margin, rather they are experienced with shattered and declining gross margin. Despite falling gross margin, stock of organization has been sustained by rapid growth in revenue and optimism on long-term profit margin. From the analysis of case study, it can be said that the applicable objective as per general purpose reporting entities are related to their financial performance. There needs to be adoption of several measures for displaying the performance of entity. They are required to make distinction between items of expenses and income that have differing degrees of inclusiveness. This can be explained with the help of an example, gross margin and profit and loss arising ordinary activities after taxation and before taxation and loss or profit. In case of Amazon also the main objective of the company is to provide proper information to the users through their financial statements so that they can take proper decision with regard to the company and its various policies. The company is considering making new investments and it is important that the companies must make proper disclosure about the same in their annual reports. The company must follow all the accounting standards and accounting policies that would help them making all the disclosures accurately and very precisely (Kew and Stredwick 2017). It is seen that on the basis of the same the company needs to follow the standard rules and regulations for the preparation of their financial statements and it is important to make sure that they are free from all kind of errors. The ongoing pressure of margin of Amazon is affecting investors. Investors seek to get the information about organization whether the favourable cash flow are generated in the process of business and operating profitably (Bonin 2013). This is so because investors decision about expected cash flow is related to investors, business entities and uncertainties. Therefore, Amazon is required to incorporate the general-purpose financial reporting objective of displaying relevant financial information to investors. Financial reports of Amazon should incorporate relevant financial informations and explanatory materials are to be read with the financial statements that are to be communicated to investors of organization. References: Andrei, P. and Corbella, S., 2017. 8 The contributions of Carlo Masini to accounting theories. The History and Tradition of Accounting in Italy, p.158. Bonin, H., 2013. Generational accounting: theory and application. Springer Science Business Media. Kew, J., and Stredwick, J. 2017. Business environment: managing in a strategic context. Kogan Page Publishers.

Sunday, March 29, 2020

Why Microsoft is a monopoly Essay Example For Students

Why Microsoft is a monopoly Essay Through a combination of tactics that many people would consider monopolistic Microsoft is now involved in almost every aspect of the computer and computer-related telecommunications markets and is emerging as a major player in Internet commerce and on-line media ventures. As of March 1997, 87% of all the software developers were actually developing the Windows bit 32 platform, which is the operating system for Microsoft. Fifty three percent of 2.4 million US Professional developers use Microsofts visual basic program as their primary development language(1) Microsoft is playing an increasing role in their technical education, forging commercial partnerships with both commercial and academic training institutions. Microsofts Internet Explorer desktop browser has overtaken Netscapes software for navigating the Internet. Microsoft also has made many alliances with banks and its financial software, Money and Personal Investor, along with its financial server software, Microsoft is emerging as a key player in shaping the on-line financial transaction system of the future. Its ownership of the Microsoft Network(MSN) and its partnership with NBC, which has created MSNBC venture has given Microsoft strong distribution outlets for its emerging range of media content. Its investment in Dreamworks gives it a position in Hollywood movie and music production that can be assembled into its on-line ventures involving interactive multimedia as computers and television combine in coming years. Also Microsoft is working to control the way people connect to the Internet from work and home. Its $425 million purchase of WebTV gives it control of a major avenue for non-PC internet access. Its $1 billion investment in the cable company Comcast and proposed investments in US West cable now make it a major player in designing standards for accessing the Internet over cable. Microsofts Bill Gates is in partnership in a $9 billion venture to create a low-orbit satellite system called Teledesic that could give high-speed Internet access to anyone anywhere in the world, an investment supported by the US government through a massive free giveaway of radio spectrum to the company. Microsoft has used that financial clout consistently over the last few years to acquire companies and their software and human assets, while sealing financial alliances with a range of partners. While many of the financial details have not been made public, Microsoft spent an estimated $1.5 billion between 1994 and 1996 on acquisitions.(3) Microsoft has purchased many companies buying or investing in over twenty companies in 1996 alone. Its investment have not only been with the $1.5 billion spent on WebTV and Comcast, the $150 million invested in Apple, and the hundreds of millions invested in additional Internet-related companies, including its key investments in audio and video streaming. It has been acquiring key strategic technologies at a rate of over one per month. Surprisingly Microsoft is not at the peak of an industrys size but at an early stage in markets that are expected to explode in the next decade. If unchecked, there is a real possibility of Microsoft becoming a financial and technological mountain dominating more markets and industries than any monopoly has ever dominated. The nature of high technology makes each individual market linked to other markets through a combination of software standards, training skills, development tools and physical architecture that must all be able to work in combination. The key to the economics of networked technology is that products and markets do not stand alone in these high-technology markets but instead reinforce one path of innovation versus a ny alternative path. An operating system attracts software developed around that operating system, which discourages new competition since any alternative faces not only the challenge of creating a better operating system but competing against a while array of already existing software applications. Businesses train employees in one technology and are reluctant to abandon that investment in training, while the existence of a pool of people trained in that technology encourages other businesses to adopt that technology. And as desktop software has to be able to work with client-server networks and an array of other technologies, it becomes nearly impossible to abandon an established set of technology standards that tie those different parts together. These so-called network effects give an incredible anti-competitive edge to companies like Microsoft that .ue7d1da603ed2e53dc80c3f05bf6573a0 , .ue7d1da603ed2e53dc80c3f05bf6573a0 .postImageUrl , .ue7d1da603ed2e53dc80c3f05bf6573a0 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ue7d1da603ed2e53dc80c3f05bf6573a0 , .ue7d1da603ed2e53dc80c3f05bf6573a0:hover , .ue7d1da603ed2e53dc80c3f05bf6573a0:visited , .ue7d1da603ed2e53dc80c3f05bf6573a0:active { border:0!important; } .ue7d1da603ed2e53dc80c3f05bf6573a0 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ue7d1da603ed2e53dc80c3f05bf6573a0 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ue7d1da603ed2e53dc80c3f05bf6573a0:active , .ue7d1da603ed2e53dc80c3f05bf6573a0:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ue7d1da603ed2e53dc80c3f05bf6573a0 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ue7d1da603ed2e53dc80c3f05bf6573a0 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ue7d1da603ed2e53dc80c3f05bf6573a0 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ue7d1da603ed2e53dc80c3f05bf6573a0 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ue7d1da603ed2e53dc80c3f05bf6573a0:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ue7d1da603ed2e53dc80c3f05bf6573a0 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ue7d1da603ed2e53dc80c3f05bf6573a0 .ue7d1da603ed2e53dc80c3f05bf6573a0-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ue7d1da603ed2e53dc80c3f05bf6573a0:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Nelson mandela Essay We will write a custom essay on Why Microsoft is a monopoly specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Choosing the Best Anti-Fouling Paint

Choosing the Best Anti-Fouling Paint The earliest anti-fouling systems consisted of two elements. The first was a metal scraper and the second was the lowest ranking sailor on the vessel. But seriously, the buildup of biological matter on the submerged hull is a huge problem for the material and for the efficiency of the vessel. The task of manually scraping bottoms was made much easier when sheet copper was fastened to the bottom of wooden hulled ships. Eventually the technology advanced to produce paint that held copper compounds and slowly released them into the environment. The next major breakthrough was tributyltin which worked very well but it was so toxic to the environment that it was banned three decades later. Improved copper based paints and non-copper alternatives are now available. In fact there are so many specialized paints it’s difficult to leave the copper behind to try something else. Why change? Well in some areas we are already seeing the signs that point to widespread bans. Northern Europe and the West Coast of the U.S. are phasing in bans in some areas and more will follow. Types of Anti-Fouling Paints Ablative Anti-Fouling Anti-fouling paints take different strategies to meet the goal of eliminating plant, animal, and algae growth on the wet parts of the hull. There are three common types of anti-foul available. The most common is ablative paint which wears away like a bar of soap. This soap analogy is very old but really works well for this type of paint. If you use your vessel regularly there should be no problem wearing away the growth. Seasonal boats that have long periods of disuse will not benefit as much of the cleaning takes place while underway. This paint works well since animals like the zebra mussel have difficulty finding a firm hold. They are generally pulled off as the vessel moves through the water. A moderate amount of maintenance is required for this coating since it must be applied to last until the next haul out. Large vessels that cannot be hauled should use a more durable paint. Copolymer Anti-Fouling Copolymers are much tougher than ablatives and don’t have some of the disadvantages of hard paints. They can be exposed to air during maintenance and not lose potency. There is also little chance of paint build up since copolymers are designed to ablate at a much slower rate than a true ablative paint. Unless you have a specific need for an ablative or hard paint this is often the best choice. It is also the safe option if a location has unknown conditions. Some people refer to these as slow polishing paints. Hard Anti-Fouling When a vessel gets to a certain size you no longer want the expense of dry dock or haul out. This is where hard coatings shine. The most common base for these paints is epoxy or some other tough polymer. It releases biocide constantly by allowing the poison to migrate to the surface of the paint and leaches fewer toxins away in the process. This is durable stuff and it does not come off in harsh conditions. In fact it must be removed mechanically by blasting or sanding. Because of the pollution potential of the runoff or dust from these processes produce toxic wastes that have significant costs of disposal. The cost of these paints is generally higher due to specialized application processes. For a smooth finish these paints should be sprayed while the others can be applied by roller and brush. Since this is a low maintenance solution most large commercial vessels use this type of paint. The Biocides Biocides are the toxic element in the paint which deters life from attaching to the hull. There are several types and sometimes combinations in the same product. Cuprous Oxide – This is the most common biocide by far. It is also the target of environmental regulators because it is building up in harbors. This is not necessarily because the bottom paint is leaching too much copper. The problem is thought to be caused by the power washing, scrubbing and sanding done on thousands of recreational vessels.Almost all of this runoff has a short trip from the bottom of the boat to the water it was almost never collected in the past. New regulations are now requiring marinas to collect this waste and dispose of it properly. This will increase the overall cost of maintenance and some services may no longer be available. Cuprous Thiocyanate – Similar in behavior to cuprous oxide but stronger biocides make it useful for high foul areas or low use vessels. Composite Copper – This is still copper but in a better package. The copper is encapsulated in another material that makes it less likely to leach beyond the needed rate. Silica is currently being used as a matrix but this is a rapidly advancing technology. Pyrithione Zinc – One of the best copper alternatives. Alternatives to copper are increasing as bans become inevitable. This biocide is not generally recommended for high fouling areas like the tropics. Non-Metalic Biocides – These are fairly new to the market and are composed of organic molecules most likely modeled from compounds found on a living creature. Anti-Foulings of the Future The future is super slippery and we have been promised something that is more of a thin film than paint. The first of these products have come to market and are best for low-fouling areas. They hold a lot of promise since they have no biocide and may last for the life of the vessel when fully developed. Imagine the days when a coating goes on at the shipyard and never needs replacement and at the same time improves efficiency. Until then somebody go get the scraper. Nanoparticles also hold some promise for the future of low friction coatings of all types.

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Self -Care During Pregnancy Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Self -Care During Pregnancy - Research Paper Example Weight gain depends a lot on diet, physical activity and a way of life of a woman. There are certain recommendations for gain weight for women, however they differ for those with normal weight, who are underweight and overweight or obese. The weight gain also depends on how many children a woman is carrying (one, twins, triplets etc.). These recommendations are ("Pregnancy Weight Gain", New Zealand Ministry of Health, "Fit for Two: Tips for Pregnancy"): The numbers may differ depending on the recommendations of doctors in specific cases. But on the whole, a woman should try to keep to those limits, as lack of weight and weight excess may lead to undesirable outcomes, such as ("Pregnancy Weight Gain", New Zealand Ministry of Health, "Fit for Two: Tips for Pregnancy"): Thus it is necessary for a woman to try to keep to these limits, though it may be a challenge to many of them, especially that together with a growing baby, a woman has growing appetite. So it is important to her to monitor weight change and discuss it with her doctor. Healthy diet, which includes necessary nutrients and calories, and moderate physical activity may contribute to proper weight gain (New Zealand Ministry of Health). However constant and exhausting exercises should not become the ultimate goal of a pregnant woman, who does not want to gain more weight than recommended. A caloric intake of a pregnant woman does not differ significantly from a non-pregnant, and is between 2000-2500 calories (BabyCenter Medical Advisory Board, Hark and Catalano, "Fit for Two: Tips for Pregnancy"). There are some basic principles or rules, which a woman needs to observe while being pregnant. One of them is that pregnancy does not mean that a woman has to eat for two persons, because a baby does not require the same caloric intake as a grown-up person. A woman has to take extra 300-500 calories (Hark and Catalano). During the first trimester a woman may have the same calories